Seven Republicans appear to have made the second debate

PHOTO: The stage is pictured ahead of the first Republican Presidential primary debate at the Fiserv Forum in Milwaukee, Aug. 23, 2023.PlayBrendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images
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Get ready for a slightly cozier debate stage, America. Republicans look set to have seven participants in the party’s second primary debate on Wednesday, down from eight at the first gathering in August. Despite meeting the Republican National Committee’s qualifying thresholds, former President Donald Trump will once again not join in the festivities, instead opting to speak to current and former union members in Detroit as he’s already looking beyond the GOP primary to a potential general election rematch against President Biden.

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Overall, seven candidates besides Trump had sufficient polls and donors to qualify for the debate stage by the RNC’s deadline this evening. Additionally, all seven signed the RNC’s pledge to support the party’s eventual nominee ahead of the last debate.

Seven candidates have made the second GOP debate

Republican presidential candidates by whether and how they have qualified for the second primary debate and if they signed the first debate pledge, as of 9 p.m. Eastern on Sept. 25, 2023

Candidate Polls Donors Pledge
Ron DeSantis
Vivek Ramaswamy
Nikki Haley
Mike Pence
Chris Christie
Tim Scott
Doug Burgum
Donald Trump
Will Hurd
Asa Hutchinson

Table only includes candidates who have met FiveThirtyEight’s “major” candidate criteria. Polls qualification is based on surveys that appear to meet the Republican National Committee’s requirements for inclusion.

To qualify for the debate, candidates must meet both the polling and donor thresholds established by the Republican National Committee. To meet the polling requirement, a candidate must reach 3 percent in at least two national polls, or 3 percent in one national poll and two polls from the first four states voting in the GOP primary, each coming from separate states, based on surveys that meet the RNC’s criteria for inclusion. To meet the donor requirement, a candidate must have at least 50,000 unique donors with at least 200 donors in at least 20 states and/or territories. Information released by campaigns is used to determine whether a candidate has hit the donor threshold. If a campaign reached 50,000 donors but did not say whether it had at least 200 donors in 20 states, we assumed that it had met the latter requirement as well. To participate, candidates who have sufficient polls and donors must sign a pledge promising to support the eventual Republican presidential nominee.


To meet the RNC’s polling requirement, a candidate needed at least 3 percent support in two national polls, or at least 3 percent in one nationwide survey and two polls from separate early states, based on polls conducted since Aug. 1 that met the RNC’s criteria for inclusion. Candidates also needed at least 50,000 unique contributors, with at least 200 from 20 different states or territories. The RNC raised the polling and donor standards used for the first debate, mandating 3 percent poll support instead of 1 percent and 50,000 donors instead of 40,000.

Six of the seven qualifiers comfortably met the polling and donor metrics to make the stage, based on 538’s analysis. On the polling front, Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis and tech entrepreneur Vivek Ramaswamy hit 3 percent in every qualifying national and state poll, while former U.N. Ambassador Nikki Haley missed the mark in just one survey of Iowa. Former Vice President Mike Pence, former New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and South Carolina Sen. Tim Scott each hit the 3 percent mark in at least three-fourths of national and state surveys. None of the qualified candidates had any lingering uncertainty about attracting enough donors, either, as the small uptick from 40,000 to 50,000 contributors proved easily surmountable.

However, the RNC’s higher polling thresholds proved a challenge for the other contenders, including North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum, the seventh and final candidate to qualify. Burgum announced in late July that he had 50,000 unique donors, and he attracted 3 percent in surveys from Iowa and New Hampshire. But that left him one national poll short of qualification. Early Saturday morning, though, the Trafalgar Group released a national poll that had Burgum at 3 percent, just allowing him to qualify for the stage.

Beyond Burgum, though, insufficient polling support kept the other candidates off stage, although some struggled to attract enough donors, too. Former Texas Rep. Will Hurd managed one qualifying early state poll out of New Hampshire, but no others. Hurd did announce that he had 50,000 donors on Monday afternoon, but his public opposition to signing the RNC’s pledge may have always guaranteed he wouldn’t participate in GOP debates this cycle, regardless of polls and donors. Former Arkansas Gov. Asa Hutchinson hit 3 percent in one national poll prior to the first debate, but he never got a second one — or 3 percent in any qualifying surveys from early states, for that matter. Hutchinson also appears to have come up short on attracting 50,000 donors, although he said just before the debate that he was close to reaching that threshold. Businessman Perry Johnson and radio personality Larry Elder argued the RNC should’ve allowed them to participate in the first debate — they even threatened legal action — but while Johnson did attract 50,000 donors, the two candidates have less of a case for the second debate because they have zero qualifying polls.

As for Trump, he’s unlikely to suffer ill effects from blowing off another debate. Although some conservative voices have criticized Trump’s decision to avoid debates, his choice to skip the first one did not cause his campaign any obvious harm. Before that event, he was polling in the mid-50s in 538’s national polling average, and while his numbers sank slightly to just below 50 percent after it, they have returned to the mid-50s. Like it or not, Trump’s behavior is in keeping with that of some front-running candidates in campaigns for other offices who decided there was insufficient upside to participating in a primary debate compared with the downside of providing their opponents with opportunities to attack them. And it appears Trump won’t be attending a debate anytime soon, as Bloomberg reported last week that he also plans to skip the next one in early November.

That means we’ll once again see an almost alternate universe at the second GOP gathering, as seven candidates will participate but the party’s clear favorite won’t. Although Wednesday’s debate will give these Republicans the chance to make their pitches to GOP voters watching on Fox Business, the lack of any significant change in the campaign after the first debate makes it hard to know how any of them can shake things up in the second debate sufficiently to close the yawning gap between the rest of the field and Trump.